what are ointments? how they are classified?

asked Aug 23, 2014 in Pharmacy by teja (5,919 points)

1 Answer

answered Dec 21, 2014 by sivannarayana (2,271 points)

The ointments are semisolid dosage forms applied for skin or mucous membrane, these are mainly prepared with the hydrocarbons, waxes or polyols these are mainly present more than 50%. The water content and volatile oils are less than 20%.

Classification:

Dermatological ointment: These ointments are applied on the surface of skin. These are again classified into three types based on the site of activity.

a. Epidermic ointments; These types of ointment are exert their therapeutic activity in the epidermis. eg: ketoconazole ointment.

b. Endodermic ointments: Thse are exert their activity in the endodermis. eg; Demodex ointment

c. Didermic ointments: These types of ointments are exert their activity by enter inter into deper of skin layers and enter into systemic circulation. eg; Nitroglycerin ointment.

Opthalmic ointments: These ointments are mainly used for the treatment of eye problems.The drug enter into the inner layers of the eye. eg: Moxifloxacin opthalmic ointment

Rectal ointments: These types of ointments are administered into rectal route. These PEG 400 (Poly ethyline glycol), cetyl alcohol, sterile esters etc for the tratment of bowel problems. 

Veginal ointments: These are mainly used used for the tratment of vaginal infection treatment. eg:Candicidin ointment

Nasal ointments ; These are mainly used for the treatmet of alergic reaction. Comparitively this route is less predominent. The drug directly entered into systemic circulation.eg; Iprtropium bromide

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