What are cell organelles and their functions?

asked Feb 7, 2014 in Biology by teja (9,980 points)
Cell Organelles and its functions

1 Answer

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answered Jul 22 by olive (1,190 points)

Cell organelles:

A. Cell wall: The cell wall is the outermost layer of living cell. The thickness of cell wall is approximately 70 Ao

       Functions: The cell wall diffuse substances from inside to outside and viceversa

B.  Nucleus: This is largest part of the cell located at center. It contains two parts.

  • Nucleolus: It is a coiled filamentous structure contains number of granules. Nucleolus functions as a synthesis of Ribonucleic acid
  • Chromatin: It consists of  DNA (Deoxy Ribonucleic acid)  and proteins. Chromatin functions to carry genetic information from one generation to another generation.

C. Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm present in between  cell wall and nucleus. All cell organelles including endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria  and  centrosomes present in the cytoplasm.

D. Microsomes: These are tiny cell organelles that are present inside the cell. These contain two components i.e ribosomes and granulated matrix.

  • Ribosomes : It is responsible for protein synthesis
  • Granulated matrix: It contains oxidases and catalases to generate hydrogen peroxide and water (H2O) respectively.

E. Endoplasmic reticulum: It contains two membranes which are separated by a space. They are

  • Granular or rough surface endoplasmic reticulum: It contain ribosomes that are responsible in protein synthesis.
  •  Agranular/ Smooth surface endoplasmic reticulum: It is responsible for synthesis of fatty acids and steroids.

F.  Golgi apparatus: These are cup shaped structures containing vesicles that are responsible for the concentration of proteins prior to their secretion.

G. Mitochondria: It contains two layers i.e., outer layer is smooth and inner layer is folded into sheet of tubules called cristae. Both layers are enclosed by a center cavity called matrix. These are responsible for the cellular oxidation. These are also called as Power house of cell.

H.  Lysosomes: These are spherical and oval shaped part in the cell . It contains hydrolytic enzymes that function engulfment of bacteria and cell debris. So these are also called as Suicide bags.

I.  Centrosome: These are small rod shaped bodies. They play an important role in cell division.

J. Microtubules: These are straight hollow cylinders shaped organelles that are responsible for maintaining cell shape.

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