Lack of blood or lower haemoglobin content in blood is called anaemia or anemia.
Types of Anemia:
1. Macrocytic Anaemia: It is also termed as Pernicious or Megaloblastic Anemia. This is caused due to deficiency of folic acid or Vitamin B12 which inturn affects in porphyrin synthesis. In this condition, the size of RBC or erythrocyte cell increases with low haemoglobin content.
2. Haemolytic Anemia: This is caused due to bacterial infection, malaria fever, snake bite and much more. In this condition, excessive destruction of RBC's or erythrocytes is seen. Usually, this condition seen mostly in patients who intake drugs like primaquin having low concentration of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehyrogenase.
3. Microcytic Anemia: It is also called as hypochromic anaemia ad caused due to deficiency of iron in the body. In this condition, the size of RBC cells or erythrocytes become small.
4. Sideroblastic Anemia: This is caused due to iron metabolism disorder. In this condition, we can see impaired RBC formation. In this type of anemia, iron accumulates in mitochondria which looks like a ring of granules around nucleus. The ring is named as sideoblast.
5. Sickle Cell Anaemia: This is due to abnormal or faulty haemoglobin and is a hereditary disorder. RBC shape is converted from globular to sickle shape because of abnormal Hg. The sickle shaped RBC cells are unable to move freely in capillaries which may results in blocking and sometimes even it causes to rupture and undergo haemolysis. In some patients, spleen size may also enlarge which pains severely.
6. Betathalassemia: This also occurs due to abnormal haemoglobin. This is a hereditary disorder. In this condition, RBC formation and maturation distrubs which results in formation of very thin, fragile and immature nucleated RBC's in blood. Spleen size also enlarges in this case.
7. Aplastic Anaemia: It is caused due to multiple X-ray exposure, cancer, certain chemicals, toxins, drugs and much more. In this condition, bone marrow disfunctioning is seen which results in reduction of all blood cells.
8. Polycythemia: Polycythemia is a blood cancer. It is caused due to abnormal increase in number of RBC's or erythocyte cells.